Nik Maizatul Akma Binti Mahadi.1, Adzliza Binti Rahmat.1, Nurain Syahirah Binti Abd Ghafar.1, Nur Sakinah binti Mohd Shukri.1, Chin Yi Ying.1
1School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
Tuberculosis (TB) remains to be a leading cause of death worldwide. Hence, this study review mainly focuses on the associated factors and dietary interventions of TB.
PRISMA-ScR method was used in this study review, and it focused on the relevant English academic journals published from 2010 to 2020. A total of 29 studies were selected from 48,555 studies screened from the electronic databases, namely PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and MEDLINE Complete at EBSCOhost.
Results & Discussion
TB has been associated with lifestyle factors (alcohol use and smoking), pathophysiological factors (diabetes mellitus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), anemia, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), malignant disease, liver transplant, and glucose intolerance), close contact with TB patients, sociodemographic factors (age, gender, poverty, living in a rural area, healthcare workers and incarceration), and nutritional status (underweight and malnourished and vitamin A deficiency). Dietary interventions for TB include providing various macro and micronutrients supplementations, namely protein, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, folic acid, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin D, selenium, copper, and zinc.
Future research should be more focused on the effective dietary interventions of TB to improve the quality of life of TB patients.