Siti Aliah Raihana R.1, Jun Hao L.1 & Zulfitri Azuan M.D. 1,2
1 Department of Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia
2 Research Center of Excellent (RCoE) Nutrition and Non-communicable Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
Economic and lifestyle changes resulting from the movement control order (MCO) may cause detrimental impact on individuals’ nutritional health. This study aimed to determine the impact of full-blown MCO on food intakes and body weight among hemodialysis (HD) patients according to food security status in Pulau Pinang.
In this retrospective study, a total of 107 multi-ethnic HD patients were recruited from 3 dialysis centres in Pulau Pinang. Data was collected via face-to-face interview. Food security status was assessed using the validated 10-items USDA-FSSM. Differences in food intakes and post-dialysis weight before and during the full-blown MCO (6th week) in 2020 were determined and analyzed using general linear model.
Results & Discussion
Food insecurity during MCO was evidenced in 22.4% of HD patients with a greater proportion observed in female (p < 0.001), unemployed (p < 0.011), and those who had lower education level (p < 0.012), household income (p < 0.003), and number of working family members (p < 0.016). As expected, food-insecure HD patients had significantly lower post-dialysis weight (p = 0.01) and poorer dietary intakes in almost all food groups albeit not significant (all p > 0.05) as compared to food-secure HD patients even before MCO. Regardless of food security status, significant reductions of dietary intakes were observed during MCO for fruits (p < 0.001), vegetables (p < 0.005), and savory snacks (p < 0.011) but not for fish and seafood, meat and poultry, cereal and tubers, milk and dairy product, and sweet and candies (all p > 0.05). Food-insecure HD patients experienced a greater reduction in fruit and savory snack intakes as compared to food-secure HD patients. Nevertheless, no significant changes in post-dialysis weight (p = 0.13) was found in HD patients with and without food security problem.
MCO exacerbates the food accessibility problem in food-insecure HD patients.