Nurul Huda R. 1,2 , Chui Fen C. 1, Nur Mahirah Amani M. 1, Zahara A.M 1,2
1 Dietetic Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
2 Research Centre for Healthy Aging and Wellness (H-CARE), Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of plate waste among patients on a texture-modified diet (TMD), as well as the factors that contribute to it.
This is a single centre plate waste assessment conducted at an urban teaching hospital involving three types of TMD including minced diet, mixed porridge and blended diet. Plate waste was measured at lunch and dinner by food weighing and photograph-assisted visual estimation. Information on the factors contributing to TMD plate waste was obtained through interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Factors studied included food and foodservice quality through patient's satisfaction survey and also clinical/external factors such as appetite, oral nutrition supplementation, duration to finish the diet, the need for feeding assistance and length of hospital stay.
Results & Discussion
The average percentage of total plate waste among 95 patients receiving TMD was high (47.5%)., substantially higher than the global median hospital plate waste (31%) rate. Blended diet was found to be the most wasted TMD (65%), followed by minced diet (56%) while mixed porridge was the least wasted among the TMD studied (35%). The level of patient satisfaction was found to be moderate. Patients with TMD had a higher degree of satisfaction with food service than with food quality in general. Depending on the TMD form, there was a significant association between food sensorial qualities and plate waste. An analysis of multiple linear regression highlighted that food appearance and food variety were the predictors of TMD plate waste.
Aggressive measures to minimise TMD food waste are warranted especially in making TMD more visually appealing and offered in variation which may improve patient's nutritional status and clinical outcomes. This study also suggests that of the other forms of TMD served in hospitals, blended diet, also known as pureed diet, requires the most attention and special consideration.