Wan Zulaika Wan Musa.1, Aryati Ahmad.1,2*, Nur Ain Fatinah Abu Bakar.1, Nyi Nyi Naing.3
1School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
2Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Oxford OX2 6GG, United Kingdom
3Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Medical Campus, 20400 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
This study aimed to determine the risk factors of CHD among Malaysian population.
Using a retrospective observational cohort study design, this study involved 365 adult patients attending medical clinics from public hospitals and health clinics that were selected based on purposive sampling from every region of Malaysia. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical profile, dietary data, physical activity and stress level were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse the associated CHD risk factors.
Result & Discussion
In the final model, ten predictors were found to be significantly associated with CHD among this population including age (adjusted OR=1.043, 95% CI=1.009,1.078), smoking status (adjusted OR= 5.089, 95% CI= 2.578,10.045), family history of CHD (adjusted OR= 2.521, 95% CI= 1.385,14.588), marital status (adjusted OR= 0.434, 95% CI= 0.217,0.867), waist circumference (adjusted OR= 1.033, 95% CI= 1.009,1.057), HDL cholesterol (adjusted OR= 0.185, 95% CI= 0.052,0.662), total fat intake (adjusted OR= 1.035, 95% CI= 1.021,1.050) and full cream dairy products intake (adjusted OR= 1.004, 95% CI= 1.001,1.008). Besides, Chinese (adjusted OR= 10.619, 95% CI= 2.255,49.995) and Indian (adjusted OR= 1.975, 95% CI= 0.635,6.146) were more likely to have CHD than Malay and people with income of RM3171-3970 (adjusted OR= 0.198, 95% CI= 0.071,0.553) and RM3971-4850 (adjusted OR= 0.184, 95% CI= 0.063,0.541) were less likely to have CHD than people with income of less than RM2500.
Age, race, smoking status, family history, income status, marital status, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, total fat intake, and full cream dairy products intake were significantly associated with CHD. This finding is particularly important to the primary health care sector to identify at-risk CHD individuals thus appropriate intervention could be provided, although longitudinal prospective studies are required to confirm the association among this population.