Ho Chiou Yi, Siti Nuraini Ahmad Samwil, Zuliehaiza Kahairudin, Norshariza Jamhuri
Institut Kanser Negara
Sarcopenia is defined as ageing-related muscle mass and function loss while sarcopenic obesity is characterized by the sarcopenia accompanied by excess fat mass. Obesity accelerates the development of sarcopenia even in young adults. This study aims to investigate the sarcopenic risk among obese adult candidates for metabolic surgery.
This is a preliminary observation result on the cross-sectional study among obese participants admitted for metabolic surgery. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidities, anthropometrics (height and waist circumference), body composition (weight, fat percentage, fat mass, fat free mass and muscle mass) were collected upon admission. Participants were divided into obese (BMI < 49.9kg/m2) (OG) and severe obese group (BMI > 50kg/m2) (SOG). High sarcopenic risk was defined as fat mass to fat free mass (FM/FFM) ratio > 0.8.
Results & Discussion
The preliminary observation recruited 34 participants with mean for age 35.3 ¬± 5.6 years and 35% (n=12) were severe obese. Majority (65%) of participants had low muscle strength. SOG had significantly higher results than OG for weight (154.2 ¬± 37.2kg vs 106.8 ¬± 13.3kg), fat mass (97.3 ¬± 27.6kg vs 52.9 ¬± 12.6kg), energy intake (2933 ¬± 365kcal/day vs 1833 ¬± 328kcal/day), and sarcopenic risk (1.8 ¬± 0.6 vs 1.0 ¬± 0.3). Pearson correlation revealed that BMI (p<0.01), waist circumference (p<0.01), muscle mass (p<0.05) and handgrip strength (p<0.05) were significantly correlated to sarcopenic risk.
Sarcopenia has been widely studied in older adults and individuals with chronic illness but gowing of evidence suggests that obese younger individuals are also at risk for sarcopenia but masked by obesity. Basic anthropometric measurements alone are inadequate to identify sarcopenic obesity. Sarcopenic obesity was associated with increased risk of physical disability, metabolic diseases and other co-morbidities. The structured interventions approach could be carried out by the early detection of sarcopenic risk in severe obese population in clinical settings.