Viola Michael 1,3, Yee Xing You 1, Suzana Shahar 1,*, Zahara Abdul Manaf 1, Hasnah Haron 2, Siti Nurbaya Shahrir 3, Hazreen Abdul Majid 4, Yook Chin Chia 5,6, Feng Jun He 7 and Graham A MacGregor 7
1 Dietetics Programme and Centre for Healthy Aging and Wellness (H-Care), Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
2 Nutritional Sciences Programme and Centre for Healthy Aging and Wellness (H-Care), Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Disease Control Division , Ministry Of Health Malaysia; email@example.com
4 Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Malaya; firstname.lastname@example.org
5 Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Malaysia; email@example.com
6 Department of Primary Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia; firstname.lastname@example.org
7 Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this study is to examine barriers, enablers and perceptions on dietary salt reduction outside of home sectors:
MEDLINE(PubMed), Ebscohost, Ovid, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases were searched in September and December 2020. Inclusion criteria includes English language, qualitative and quantitative study since 2010 and reporting barriers, enablers and perceptions of salt reductions outside the home. In total 436 studies were screened and 61 studies met the criteria.
Results & Discussion
Perceived barriers to reduce salt intake among out of home sectors were lack of menu variability, lack of technical skills for salt reduction techniques for cooking & reformulation, profit and loss due to salt reduction, and no systemic and environmental support to reduce salt. Enablers of salt reduction were salt reduction intervention program, analysis or salt intake measurement studies, salt substitute accessibility, gradual reduction of salt and education availability. For perception or behavior, individual or organizational characteristics effects on salt intake, many people remain unaware of their high and negative effect of salt intake, and low salt foods are tasteless
Barriers, enablers and perceptions about salt reduction in out of home sector are multifaceted. Implementing policy, strategies and initiatives to address barriers must include multisectoral collaboration in order to help reduce salt intake of the population.
Keywords: barriers, enablers, perception, salt reduction, out-of-home